‘80s Action Movies Meet ‘80s Slasher Movies
by Max McPike
In many ways the 1980s was arguably the most prolific decade in genre film history. The disappearance of grindhouse theaters marked the end of an era. While genre films continued to proliferate theatrically, the advent of VHS and other formats opened the doors for films made specifically for the home video market while also giving older titles a second life — creating a melting pot of genre cinema. And of the many sub-genres dominating the market was the all-mighty slasher film and what are affectionately referred to today as ‘80s action films. Characterized for their over-the-top action and despicable villains, these movies often starred the likes of Sylvester Stallone and Chuck Norris, who use their machismo and dry humor to deliver their own brand of justice. With theaters and video stores overflowing with these films, it’s no surprise that these two massive sub-genres combined to create some unique and truly underrated cinematic hybrids. Interestingly, both of these movements began in the 1970s — originating from two influential, landmark films.
As the ‘70s settled into place and America began reassessing itself following the turbulent 1960s, new cynicism and fears were being felt. There were those that subscribed to the notion that justice was being obscured by the politics of law, resulting in a system favoring the rights of criminals over victims.1 Such rhetoric easily found its way into the cinema of the period, showing us the monsters lurking in real life. The call for justice was answered by Hollywood in the form of a cop who played by his own rules and in the process launched a cinematic icon.
In Dirty Harry (1971), Clint Eastwood stars as “Dirty” Harry Callahan, a no-nonsense homicide inspector tasked with taking down a deranged rooftop sniper, self-referred in a ransom note as “Scorpio.” Brilliantly portrayed by Andrew Robinson (Hellraiser), Scorpio is arguably the ultimate villain, for not only is he a serial sniper, but also a bigot, rapist, and pedophile — and in some ways a bizarre by-product of the ‘60s, as evidenced by the make-shift peace sign he uses as a belt buckle.2
(Clint Eastwood as “Dirty” Harry Callahan in Dirty Harry; Photo Credit)
(Andrew Robinson as Scorpio in Dirty Harry; Photo Credit)
While “Dirty Harry” operated behind a badge, there were those who took the law into their own hands, and it was the influential Death Wish (1974) that spearheaded the movement of vigilante action films. And it was the phenomenon of John Carpenter’s Halloween (1978) that launched the wave of slasher films that proliferated shortly after. The film concerns an escaped mental patient who returns to his home town and begins terrorizing a group of babysitters on Halloween night.
Mental illness would become a continuing theme throughout the slasher movement, from phone stalking in When a Stranger Calls (1979) to the rage of long-buried trauma in My Bloody Valentine (1981). Mental illness has long been associated with crime and is a recurring motif among many of the action-slasher film hybrids. As action films continued into the late ‘70s and the slasher films were just beginning their stride, it didn’t take long for the two genres to merge.
“Science created him. Now Chuck Norris must destroy him.” This may be one of the coolest taglines ever penned. What is Silent Rage (1982) but a slasher film starring Chuck Norris? The aforementioned actor and karate champion stars as a roundhouse-kicking sheriff who must destroy a genetically indestructible killer (Brian Libby). Unlike the hybrids that followed the Dirty Harry formula, Silent Rage is for the most part played as a straight-up slasher film with the addition of a few mad scientists and a “Frankenstein” undertone. The film opens as mentally-ill John Kirby (Libby) loses his sanity and goes on a killing spree before being shot by police. He is then taken to a medical institute where his psychiatrist (Ron Silver) and a group of genetic engineers (Steven Keats and William Finley) revive Kirby through a special serum that turns him into a raging, invulnerable, killing machine.
(William Finley and Brian Libby in Silent Rage; Photo Credit)
After escaping the institute, what follows is a typical stalk-and-slash plot as Kirby targets his psychiatrist and anyone else who gets in his way. Like “Frankenstein,” the film addresses the potential danger of great power achieved through science. It is Dr. Halman, Kirby’s psychiatrist, who objects to the serum being used on a person as psychotic as Kirby. What the film ultimately builds toward is for us to see Sheriff Stevens (Norris) take on Kirby — resulting in a satisfying, yet fleeting, sequence. And like any slasher film, the killer is never dead. After being rammed by a truck, set on fire, and roundhouse kicked into a well, the film ends as Kirby raises his head from the water.
(Brian Libby and Chuck Norris in Silent Rage; Photo Credit)
Overall, Silent Rage is an entertaining and interesting specimen of genre cinema, but it is a bit slow and at times feels like a typical slasher film. It would be some time before the slasher craze let up, which meant that there was still someone with a death wish.
In 10 to Midnight (1983), Charles Bronson stars as Leo Kessler, a streetwise homicide detective who will go to any length — including planting evidence — in order to take down serial killer Warren Stacey (Gene Davis). Unique to Warren are his good looks and fit physique, contrasted by the constant rejection he faces from the women he hits on. His sexual frustration in turn leads him to murder. A sequence early in the film cross-cuts between Warren as he observes a co-worker leaving with her boyfriend and later as he approaches their van in the woods whilst they make love. A flashback also reveals the same co-worker splashing coffee on Warren following an unwarranted sexual advancement. Later we jump to Warren’s apartment as he struts around in his Speedos and is getting ready for a night on the town. We get a sense early on that Warren is full of himself and has a major entitlement complex when it comes to women. In many ways he is a proto-Patrick Bateman from American Psycho (2000), minus the upper-class lifestyle of course.
(Gene Davis in 10 to Midnight; Photo Credit)
(Christian Bale in American Psycho; Photo Credit)
Later at a movie theater, Warren faces further rejection from a pair of girls but uses this defeat to his advantage by creating an alibi. After stealthily sneaking from the theater, we cut to Warren driving through the woods where he finds his co-worker and her lover. What follows is a (mostly) typical stalk-and-slash sequence in which the boyfriend is slaughtered and the girl is chased by the killer. The setting in conjunction with the sequence instills it with a vibe very much akin to Friday the 13th (1980). But what sets the sequence apart from others of its ilk is that Warren is naked as he chases after the girl — a foreshadowing to the sequence in American Psycho in which a naked and bloody Patrick Bateman chases after a woman with a chainsaw. It is through this and other subsequent murders that Warren relieves his sexual frustration with the knife acting as an extension of the penis, a remark also made by Bronson later in the film.
(Laurie (Lisa Elibacher) fights against Warren (Gene Davis) in 10 to Midnight; Photo Credit)
Of similar foreshadowing to American Psycho is the film’s most brutal and suspenseful sequence in which a naked Warren descends upon the dormitory of Laurie, Kessler’s daughter (Lisa Elibacher). Armed with a knife, Warren forces his way in, stabbing one of Laurie’s roommates (Kelly Preston) and pouncing on another, Bunny (Iva Lane). Warren straddles Bunny, violently shaking her and demanding to know where Laurie is hiding. But through all her fear the strong-willed Bunny won’t give up her friend. Amidst all the chaos, Laurie can only listen from the darkness of the kitchen while her other friend Ola (Ola Ray) stands naked in the shower and fights back tears. As Bunny continues to deny Laurie’s presence, Warren suspects otherwise. He quietly moves her at knife-point in view of the bathroom and watches as Ola stealthily tries to pull back a towel resting on the shower door. Laurie! Warren drags Bunny to the bathroom with him while Ola gazes in fear at the silhouette of Warren in front of the shower door. Despite her best efforts, Ola dies at the blade of Warren’s knife, as does Bunny for “misleading” Warren into thinking Ola was Laurie. A demented game of cat-and-mouse ensues as Laurie attempts to evade the bloody Warren. In another film, such a sequence could have easily been cut and dry, but Warren’s nakedness and unhinged rage combine to give it a demented edge. Director J. Lee Thompson is also no slouch, having previously directed the slasher classic Happy Birthday to Me (1981).
(A shadowy figure in 10 to Midnight; Photo Credit)
Like many action films of the era, the influence of Dirty Harry can easily be seen, but is most apparent in 10 to Midnight. Both Eastwood and Bronson juggle high-profile cases along with rookie partners, and when the respective killers are turned loose on technicalities both detectives proceed to follow and monitor the villains’ moves. As time passed, action films further addressed the link between crime and mental illness — something only briefly touched upon in Dirty Harry, in which a police sergeant remarks on the predictability of criminals based on behavior patterns. 10 to Midnight rests cynically upon the notion that crime is not a mental illness and that Warren is in fact sane, but he uses mental illness as means to excuse his horrific crimes. The scene between Warren and his lawyer, Dave Dante (Geoffrey Lewis), illustrates this notion as they rehearse a plea. Dante agrees with Warren that he is sane, but insists on pleading insanity as a back-up plan.
The question of sanity arises again during the final confrontation. Kessler states to Warren, “I tried to keep you from running loose. Now there are three more dead girls.”
Warren screams at Kessler, “You drove me to it!” (This is also in response to Kessler stalking and making life difficult for Warren following his acquittal). It is during this confrontation that the film circles back as Warren rants to Kessler and we quickly recognize it as the back-up plea previously discussed between Warren and his lawyer:
“I am sick. I didn’t know what I was doing. It’s like something was happening and I couldn’t control myself. Why else would I kill girls that I don’t even know? It’s like I’m two different people. I hear voices telling me what to do. Once it begins I can’t stop.”
The film solidifies its notion that criminals are responsible for their actions and cannot be excused through mental illness. Warren’s continued rant also makes the case that criminals often escape punishment because of supposed insanity:
“You can’t punish me for being sick! All you can do is lock me up! But, not forever. One day I’ll get out. One day I’ll get out! That’s the law! That’s the law! That’s the law! And I’ll be back! I’ll be back! And you’ll hear from me! You and the whole f***ing world!”
(Charles Bronson is always there for anyone who has ever Death Wished upon a star; Photo Credit)
And in true Charles Bronson fashion, the bad guy gets it in the end. 10 to Midnight owes much to Dirty Harry, but is a thoroughly enjoyable action thriller with a unique genre twist, thus enabling it to hold its own against others of its kind. Like the Death Wish films, 10 to Midnight works to address societies’ cynicism of crime and satisfy it in an equally brutal and cathartic way. And it wouldn’t be long before the mantle was passed to Sylvester Stallone.
In Cobra (1986), Stallone stars as Marion “Cobra” Cobretti, a Los Angeles detective of the “zombie squad” tasked with taking down the worst of the worst when it comes to crime. As the department struggles amidst a series of grisly murders, Cobra eventually becomes protector to a witness (Brigitte Nielson) who has become a target to a secret cult led by the Night Slasher (Brian Thompson). Upon first seeing Cobra I was immediately struck by the profound influence of slasher films rooted in much of the film and I began to postulate of other action films with similar influences.
(Sylvester Stallone as Marion “Cobra” Cobretti in Cobra; Photo Credit)
Most obvious is the film’s central villain, the Night Slasher (not to mention the name), an intense and predatory figure perfectly played by Brian Thompson with his sharp features and glaring eyes. His strong physique also makes him a match to Stallone’s anti-hero.
(Brian Thompson as the Night Slasher in Cobra; Photo Credit)
Every iconic slasher villain has their weapon of choice and the Night Slasher is no different. With a curved, razor-sharp blade and a tang covered in spikes, our villain wields death to anyone and everyone — including children and senior citizens, as detailed by a news segment early in the film.3 Another early scene comes right out of a slasher film — even down to the cinematography — as our villain and his two main cohorts murder a waitress who leaving work. As the waitress struggles to start her car, the streetlights illuminate the dew on the car windows as a silhouetted figure with an ax approaches. The killers bash through the roof and windows. The Night Slasher’s entry is captured through a low-angled fish-eye lens, followed by a slow-motion reaction of the intended victim. A return to the fish-eye lens captures the fatal blow of the blade, though this is implied off-camera.
The victims previously mentioned also tie into the motivation behind the Night Slasher and his cult. The phrase “new world” is mentioned several times throughout the film, but it is during the final confrontation that the Night Slasher yells out to Cobra:
“We are the hunters! We kill the weak so the strong survive! You can’t stop the new world! Your filthy society will never get rid of people like us! It’s breeding them! We are the future!”
Survival of the fittest gone insane. Beside the evil intentions, the idea of the cult greatly raises the stakes, for Cobra must take on an army of killers — all with the same goals in mind as their aforementioned leader and some even hiding in plain sight. A man in a business suit can be seen during the cult’s ceremony that opens the film and it is revealed that one of the Night Slasher’s main cohorts is a cop.
(Cobra (Sylvester Stallone) fights to protect Ingrid (Brigitte Nielson) from an army of killers in Cobra; Photo Credit)
The film shares the same sentiments of Dirty Harry in terms of its stance on crime. The film’s tagline (“Crime is a disease. Meet the cure.”) carries a double meaning. It firmly implies that crime (and by extension the perpetrators) are a disease to be fought and vanquished by the strong arm of the law — and in this case, Stallone’s. The film’s first major set piece, in which the occupants of a grocery store are taken hostage, is a case in point. The attempt by police to end the siege through words and diplomacy proves ineffective and only through Cobra’s use of force does the siege end. On the flip side is the notion that many criminals suffer from mental illness, which without the proper treatment can subsequently lead to a life of crime. Arguably, the film subscribes to the former notion. As Cobra drives Nielson’s character Ingrid to a safe-house, the following exchange takes place:
There’s all these crazy people everywhere. Why can’t the police just put them away and keep them away?
Hey, tell it to the judge.
What do you mean?
We put ’em away. They let them out.
It makes me sick.
Like I said, you gotta tell it to the judge.
The scene in short illustrates that the politics of law don’t always favor those who are just, for even the worst criminals have rights. One can recall the scene in Dirty Harry in which the district attorney grills the titular detective, arguing that his apprehension of Scorpio violated the suspect’s rights. As Cobra faces off against the Night Slasher, he mockingly taunts:
“You won’t do it pig. You won’t shoot. Murder is against the law. You have to take me in…if…you can. Even I have rights…don’t I…pig. Take me in. They’ll say I’m insane…won’t they. The court is civilized…isn’t it…pig.”
Unfortunately for him, “this is where the law stops and [Cobra] starts.” Cobra holds a special place in my heart and is a perfect example of a flawed masterpiece. At times the film suffers from thin characterization and logic, but that is more than made up for with its brilliant blend of action and horror as well as having a great cast, soundtrack, and impressive action sequences.4 As the end of the ‘80s drew near, the slasher film had become conventional and the Dirty Harry formula had become cliché. Despite this, slasher and action films continued to occupy the market, including a certain round-house kicking karate champion.
Seven years after his appearance in Silent Rage, Chuck Norris returned to similar territory with Hero and the Terror (1989). Norris stars as Detective Danny O’Brien, dubbed the “Hero” after apprehending a vicious serial murderer by the name of Simon Moon (Jack O’Halloran). Three years later, Moon escapes from a mental institution and supposedly dies in the attempt. However, a series of murders and abductions begin piling up and it’s up to O’Brien to put an end to the terror once and for all.
Hero and the Terror opens in the foggy morning under a boardwalk as Simon Moon lumbers through the rolling waves with a dead girl in his arms (an iconic image long associated with horror). What follows is a chilling and atmospheric sequence as O’Brien and his partner descend upon a closed boardwalk carnival. As O’Brien looks around, he discovers Moon’s lair and in it a collection of dead female bodies. Accompanying the sequence is a sinister piece of music complete with Friday the 13th-esque vocals. From here O’Brien finds a hatch leading down below the boardwalk. Once he reaches the bottom the music slowly fades away, leaving only the ambiance of the waves and seagulls. Then the terror strikes! O’Brien struggles against the behemoth Moon, whom he is eventually able to apprehend despite the killer’s size and strength.
Simon Moon, the “terror” of the film’s title, differs greatly from the villains previously discussed in that Moon is depicted as a lumbering, vegetative, hulk, and with his pale face comes across as a zombie. However, the film positions Moon as an animal driven by instinct (note his large, Neanderthal-like forehead). Partway into the film the following exchange takes place between O’Brien and Moon’s psychiatrist, Dr. Highwater (Billy Drago):
There’s one thing I know for sure though. I gave him every test imaginable and they all came up zero—he’s got no though processes—it’s all pure instinct
So he sees something he likes, kills it, and takes it home.
…Simon is an animal and like all animals [it’s] got to have a place to hide—someplace where he feels protected [where] he can play with his victims.
(Chuck Norris as Danny O’Brien and Billy Drago as Dr. Highwater in Hero and the Terror; Photo Credit)
It is interesting to note that Moon does not sexually engage with his victims. The collection of bodies in his lair on the boardwalk struck me as though they were discarded dolls, which leaves to the imagination what Moon does to “play” with his victims. As to Moon’s motivation, Highwater speculates that Simon may have been sexually molested as a child by his mother and that by murdering women he is somehow getting back at her. O’Brien eventually uses these clues to locate Moon’s new lair and finds within it a shrine of candles, corpses, and dolls that is sure to remind many a horror fan of Jason’s shrine in Friday the 13th Part 2 (1981). Highwater maintains that Moon is an animal acting on pure instinct (Moon is undoubtedly animal-like in his behavior) but there are many aspects that contradict this. The shrine is one, and his escape from the mental hospital in which he uses a combination of dental floss, lip balm, and gun powder to cut through the bars (if such a thing is possible) is another; as well as driving a van. One could argue that Highwater was simply generalizing his thoughts, but he does channel a hint of Dr. Loomis (from the Halloween films) when he reveals to O’Brien, “I prayed he [died]. You know when they told me they couldn’t find his body, something inside me knew that nothing evil could die so easily.”
(Jack O’Halloran as Simon Moon in Hero and the Terror; Photo Credit)
What is Simon Moon? Is he simply beyond medical science? Is he pure instinct like how Michael Myers is pure evil? Or is there someone or something commanding him? Whatever it may be, it doesn’t stand a chance against Chuck Norris. At first glance, Hero and the Terror may look to be a forgettable bargain-bin action thriller, but it is an overall well-executed film highlighted by its monstrous villain.5
By the 1990s, the slasher film was considered dead while action films continued to prosper. It wasn’t until 1996 that Wes Craven’s Scream rejuvenated the slasher craze for a brief period. And it was around 2003 that the horror genre saw a major resurgence following several remakes of classic horrors from the ‘70s. The likes of Sylvester Stallone and Arnold Schwarzenegger have also seen a rejuvenation in popularity thanks to The Expendables films (2010, 2012, 2014) — whose ensemble cast and celebration of old-school action have helped fill a void we have all been missing. As genre films continue to flourish we have witnessed a diverse array of styles, aesthetics, sub-genres, and genre combinations. A prime example of this is the recent Bone Tomahawk (2015), starring Kurt Russell, which effectively combined a period western with grindhouse cannibals. It’s a sure sign that we might see another effective combination of action thrills and slasher kills. Well, do ya feel lucky, horror-fiend?
- (A)In the documentary Dirty Harry: The Original, Clint Eastwood describes such sentiments as being felt by society at the time, which later informed the film’s stance regarding crime and the rights of victims versus criminals (3).
(B) Prior to the film’s release were two key supreme court decisions that changed the way suspects were interrogated by law enforcement. In the case of Escobedo v. Illinois (1964), the supreme court ruled that any confessions made during questioning will be inadmissible if the suspect in question is denied the right to an attorney upon request, or is not made aware of their right to an attorney (4). Later in the case of Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the supreme court ruled that under the Fifth Amendment law enforcement personnel are required to advise suspects of their right to remain silent (so as to avoid self-incrimination) and they may have an attorney present during questioning (7). Both of these are directly referenced in the film during the scene in which Callahan is grilled by the San Francisco district attorney regarding his interrogation of Scorpio: “Where the hell does it say you’ve got a right to kick down doors, torture suspects, deny medical attention and legal counsel? Where have you been? Does Escobedo ring a bell? Miranda? I mean, you must’ve heard of the Fourth Amendment. What I’m saying is that man had rights”
(C) In his Library of Congress essay for Dirty Harry Matt Lohr notes of a considerable conservative backlash in response to these rulings and that law enforcement felt that it hindered them from effectively policing (6).
2.The Zodiac Killer was one of several inspirations for the character of Scorpio and unlike the film was never caught. Like Scorpio, the killer carried out his murders (five in total) in San Francisco and taunted police through letters sent to various local news publications. Written in one of the letters was the Zodiac’s threat to kill a school bus full of kids, which carried over into the film as Scorpio hijacks a school bus (2). Unlike the film, the tie-in novel touches upon the astrological aspects of Scorpio (8).
Criminal Gary Stephen Krist was another inspiration. In the film, Scorpio kidnaps a 14 year-old girl and buries her alive. He then demands a ransom in exchange for her location. In real life, heiress Barbara Jane Mackle was kidnapped and buried alive by Krist, who also sought ransom for her life (9).
- The character of the Night Slasher is obviously based on famed serial killer Richard Ramirez who only a year before the film’s release was apprehended by police. At a young age Ramirez was introduced Satanism. Over a two year span Ramirez broke into homes raping, torturing, and murdering a combined 25 people—not to mention performing satanic rituals. Dubbed the ‘Valley Intruder,’ his moniker was later changed to the Night Stalker when he took his crime spree from Los Angeles (the setting for Cobra) to San Francisco. He was initially charged with 14 murders and 31 related felonies, though some charges were dropped due to jurisdictional issues as well as to expedite the trial (1).
4. Among the cast of Cobra are two Dirty Harry alumnae. Eastwood’s rookie partner played by Reni Santoni is now an experienced veteran of the force and partner to Stallone. Also featured is Andrew Robinson in a far-less menacing role, that of an arrogant and annoying detective.
- After escaping from the mental institution, Simon Moon builds a new lair for himself in a sealed up building section accessible through the ventilation of a newly renovated theater lending the film a hint of the Phantom of the Opera.
More from the Melting Pot:
For those still itching for a good combination of action thrills and slasher kills, here are five more genre-cocktails, so rest your machete, holster your .44 magnum, and enjoy!
Fear City (1984): Directed by Abel Ferrara (Bad Lieutenant, King of New York), this film stars Tom Berenger and Jack Scalia as owners of an escort agency whose girls are being viciously murdered by a martial-arts practicing serial killer. Melanie Griffith (Body Double) also stars as Berenger’s girlfriend who soon becomes the killer’s main target. The film also features Rae Dawn Chong, Billy Dee Williams, and Ola Ray (Michael Jackson’s Thriller, 10 to Midnight).
Angel (1984): Donna Wilkes (Jaws 2) stars as Angel, an innocent 15 year-old by day and prostitute by night in order to make ends meet. However, a killer (John Diehl) with a penchant for prostitutes is on the loose and Angel just might be next. Exploitation veteran Robert Vincent O’Neil delivers not only a thrilling character study, but an exploration into the counterculture of Hollywood Boulevard. The film also features Rory Calhoun (Motel Hell) and Susan Tyrell (Forbidden Zone, Cry-Baby).
The Terminator (1984): Cyberpunk with a hint of slasher—James Cameron’s sci-fi classic stars Arnold Schwarzenegger as a cyborg sent back to 1984 to assassinate a woman (Linda Hamilton) whose future son holds the key to survival of the human race. Michael Biehn also stars as a soldier sent back to protect her. Watch out for Brian Thompson (The “Night Slasher” himself) as a punk who meets a heart-wrenching end.
Sudden Impact (1985): Slasher films were not the only sub-genre to influence action films. Clint Eastwood stars in and directs this fourth outing of the Dirty Harry series, which finds the titular detective on the trail of a gang-rape victim (Sandra Locke) delivering her own brand of vigilante justice to those responsible. The influence of rape-and-revenge films like The Last House on the Left (1972) and I Spit on Your Grave (1978) is striking and profound. Also featured are Pat Hingle (Maximum Overdrive, Batman) and Nancy Parsons (Motel Hell).
Blue Steel (1990): Director Kathryn Bigelow and writer Eric Red re-teamed following Near Dark (1987) to deliver this thriller about a rookie cop played by former Scream Queen Jamie Lee Curtis, who becomes the object of obsession for a deranged witness (Silent Rage’s Ron Silver). The film also stars genre vet Clancy Brown (Highlander, The Shawshank Redemption).
- Biography.com Editors. “Richard Ramirez Biography.com” Biography.com A&E Television
Networks, LLC. 12, Sept. 2016. Web. 28 April 2017.
- Biography.com Editors. “Zodiac Killer Biography.com.” Biography.com. A&E Television
Networks, LLC. 1, Sept. 2015. Web. 22 April 2017.
- “Dirty Harry: The Original.” Prod. Jan Hogrewe. Dirty Harry. Dir. Don Siegel. Warner Bros,
4. “Escobedo v. Illinois.” Oyez.org. Oyez, n.d. Web. 16 August 2019.
- Gynell, Helen. “Dirty Harry.” action movie freak. Action Movie Freak.com, n.d. Web. 22
April 2017. <http://www.actionmoviefreak.com/dirty-harry.html>
- Lohr, Matt. “Dirty Harry.” Library of Congress. LOC, n.d. Web. 16, August 2019.
- “Miranda v. Arizona.”Oyez.org. Oyez, n.d. Web. 16 August 2019.
- Rock, Philip., Harry Julian Fink, R.M. Fink, and Dean Riesner. Dirty Harry. United States of
America: Bantam Books, 1971. Print.
- “20 years ago, Barbara Jane Mackle was buried alive.” UPI. United Press International, 18
Dec. 1988. Web. 22 Jan. 2017. http://www.upi.com/Archives/1988/12/18/20-years-ago-Barbara-Jane-Mackle-was-buried-alive/9958598424400/